Fertilization In Vitro (in Latin: in vitro = in glass), often called "in test-tube", is fusion of a spermatozoon and ovum outside the woman organism. From this originates the popular name “Baby in a test-tube”
At the ordinary In Vitro fertilization, many spermatozoa (100 000 per ovum in average) are placed in the medium for ovum cultivation and aiming one of them to penetrate into the ovum and fertilize it, while in ICSI the embryologist injects one single spermatozoon directly into the ovum cytoplasm.
The difference between ICSI and the classic In Vitro is only in the embryologic procedures. Monitoring, stimulation and manipulations, carried out on the patient, are similar.
The first step in the sterility treatment is a complete range of examinations of both partners. The most suitable therapeutic methods for each definite case are determined, depending on the results and after consultation with the attending team.
In Vitro success is between 20 and 30%, so that procedure repeating is very often. There is no definite reply how many times it could be done, but it is considered that up to 3-4 times is reasonable.
It is very individual and depends on the applied stimulation and the rate of ovum response to it. At least 3-4 menstrual cycles should pass to recover the ovaries. It is reasonable to carry out no more than two ovaries stimulations per year.
The initial tests and diagnostic of sterility most often last about two months. The ovary stimulation itself, depending on the applied short or long protocol, lasts between 2 and 5 weeks and it is individual for each woman. Embryotransfer is between 3 and 5 days after follicular puncture.
There are modern tests, which show existence of pregnancy even on the 12-13 day after embryotransfer. We recommend the first test to be done on the 17th day of embryotransfer and the first ultrasonic examination for visualization of pregnancy – on the 21st day.
The maximum term is 5 years pursuant to the existing regulation on assisted reproduction.
The principle is the same as for repeating for In Vitro procedure – 3-4 normal menstrual cycles.